вторник, 21 мая 2013 г.

Estimation of the Russian military forces in 1699


According to my estimation, Russian military forces at the outbreak of the Great Northern war were at least 165 500 men. They were divided into 9 military territorial districts – Razriad. Field troops (“polkovaya sluzba”) totaled at least 124,300 men in feudal levy, 29,5 Reitar (incl. Hussars, Szlachta & Lance troops), 57 Foot & 27 Streltzy regiments. Estimated strength of garrison troops (“gorodovaia sluzba”) is 41,200 men. The estimation doesn't include Russian troups in Siberia & Caucus, & artillery servants. 
Estimated strength & composition of the Russian military forces in 1699
(CLICK TO ENLARGE)
Feudal levy totaled about 18,800 men. It was divided into territorial “sotnia” or company. Gentry kept personal service on their own cost.
Reitars were territorial militia created from poor gentry who couldn’t keep service on their own. Regiments consisted of 10 coys, 33 officers & 1,000 other ranks. Smolensk Szlachta served in an independent regiment of 7 coys (about 900 strong). Novgorod Razriad had Polish-styled Hussar regiment (ab. 500 strong), Sevsk - Lance squadron (4 or 5 coys), Belgorod - Lance regiment (10 coys). 
Most of Foot regiments were militia, similar to Swedish indelta. Each regiment consisted of 10 coys with 33 officers. Most of regiments were of 1,000 NCOs & privates, but regiments in Belgorod were 1,600-strong (also of 10 coys).
Three Foot regiments in Moscow were permanent. They were called “Vyborniy” (selected). The first & the second were of 10 coys. The third consisted of 2 parts (“thousands”): Preobrazenskiy & Semenovskiy (they became independent regiments in 1700). Preobrazenskiy was of a bombardier, grenadier, 16 fusilier & 4 dragoon coys. Semenovskiy was of a grenadier & 12 fusilier coys.
Moscow Streltzy were officially disbanded in 1698-99. But there were still 27 Streltzy regiments on service in 1699. They were of 5-7-10 coys. Each company consisted of a captain, 10 (12) NCOs, 90 streltzy.    
The post is a short English summary of my previous post in Russian (link). The source is my article (in Russian): Великанов В.С. К вопросу об организации и численности российских вооруженных сил в 1699 г. // Война и оружие: Новые исследования и материалы. Труды Четвертой Международной научно-практической конференции, 15-17 мая 2013 года. СПб.: ВИМАИВиВС, 2013. с. 335-350

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