понедельник, 30 мая 2011 г.

Etat des Sachsischen Infanterie, Anno 1705 (State of the Saxon infantry in 1705)

Searching for winter campaign 1705-06 materials in Russian archives I found a set of docs about Saxon & Prussian (!) armies in 1705. Among them is a doc called “Etat des Sachsischen infanterie” or State/Regulation of the Saxon infantry. It’s in German, hand-written, no remarks (not a draft copy). The doc doesn’t have a date.
The “Etat…” contains 24 battalions combined into 10,5 regiments. Regimental strength & composition are authorized, not real. Some weak infantry regiments of a single battalion were combined into a one regiment of 2 battalions of the authorized strength. Furstenberg is shown in 3 batts, but strength is given only for 2.
List of Saxon infantry regiments, 1705
(I combined several tables into one & added strengths; the order of the troops is the same as in the doc called “List…”):
Auth. strength
Regimental name

Had individual staff




* ? No ideas
*Strength for both batts



*Strength for both batts


*Strength for both batts




Saxon infantry in 1705 got a new regulation. Regiment had authorized strength of 1,391 men in 16 coys (2 battalions). Company consisted of 85 men: Kapitan (stab-officers in 5 senior companies; these coys had additional Sous-lieutenants), Lieutenant (Kapitan-lieutenant in inhaber’s coy), Fahnrich, Feldwebel, Sergeant, Fourier, 2 Tambour, Knecht, 4 Korporal, 8 Grenadier, 64 Musketeer. So, a battalion had strength of 680 men. Regimental staff was 31 men (see for details outstanding Dan Schorr’s booklet on Saxons 1700-16 p. 19 or Schuster & Francke p. 163). Garde regiment was of 32 coys or 4 battalions. Malleraque (raised from French & Swiss PoWs) was of 12 coys of 128 men in each (incl. 98 privates). 

среда, 25 мая 2011 г.

Polish infantry uniforms in 1732

I don't put new Polish plates for a while, now it's time to continue...

The plate presents 2 Polish regiments in 1732. Plates are based on Gembargewski's drawings & present 1729 uniforms (see http://rusmilhist.blogspot.com/2010/11/polish-saxon-uniform-of-1729.html). The structure of the Polish infantry in 1730s was the same as Seim of 1717 approved. The only change was Lanowy regiment raised in 1726. It consisted of 6 coys, each of 60 privates.

понедельник, 23 мая 2011 г.

Courland army & colours in 1700-01

Jager zu Pferde kompanie standard, ab. 1700
State Trophy Collection, Armemuseum

According to the Mariusz Balcerek’s materials, Courland military forces in 1700-01 consisted of 6 mounted & 2 foot coys (see details here http://kurlandia.wordpress.com/2011/03/03/sily-zbrojne/#comments):
- 1 kompania Garde du Corps,
- 2 kompanie Garde Dragoner,
- 2 kompanie Lehnsreiter (from Kurlandia & Semigalia?),
- 1 kompania Jäger zu Pferde,
- 2 foot kompanie.
Some of the cavalry troops took part in the 1700-01 campaigns (allied BO’s include “Duke’s Guards” or “Duke’s Cuirassiers”) while the foot evidently stayed in the garrisons of Mitau & Bausk.
I found 3 Courland colours in the Swedish State Trophy Collection (STC; Digital Museum site):
-        - White infantry colour with red lion
-        - White cavalry standard with gold lion
-       - Green cavalry standard with horn
The green one is attributed by M. Balcerek as Jager zu Pferde

суббота, 21 мая 2011 г.

К вопросу об организации и численности русской армии в нарвском походе 1700 г.

This week I took part in the conference in the Artillery Museum (S-Peterburg). My thesis was about strength & organization of the Russian army in Narva campaign of 1700. Below is a link to the text in RUSSIAN. English version will be added to the blog soon.

На этой неделе 18-20 мая в Артиллерийском музее в С-Петербурге прошла конференция "Война и оружие. Новые исследования и материалы". Мой доклад был посвящен организации и численности русской армии в нарвском походе 1700 г. Он не претендует на полноту и завершенность исследования данной темы, но позволяет уточнить отдельные моменты. Уже после отправки статьи орг комитету мне удалось найти несколько дополнительных источников, которые я планирую со временем выложить в блоге. Ниже дана ссылка на мой доклад, полные данные:
Великанов В.С. К вопросу об организации и численности русской армии в нарвском походе 1700. // "Война и мир. Новые исследования и материалы". Материалы 2-й международной научно-практической конференции. СПб, 2011. Ч. 1. С. 130-143 (ссылка)

вторник, 17 мая 2011 г.

GNW campaign 1706, part VIII: actions in November 1705

Carl XII evidently made decision about winter campaign 1705-06 in the beginning of November. He decided to gather his, Niroth’s & Stromberg’s troops in Warszawa & then march to Hrodno against Russian main army. Rehnskiold was left in Poland to protect main army’s back. As far as I understand Carl didn’t aware a lot about possible temporary loss of Warszawa or any other Polish city & didn’t leave any significant garrisons. Basing on Russian sources I assume that he sent an order to Stromberg about his march to Warszawa not later than November 10th & Stromberg left the town around 15-18th of November, because allies in Hrodno got news that Swedes left Cracow around 22-25th of November.
click to enlarge
I – 7th of November. Swedish troops took Plock. Russians estimated them of 800-900 mounted & several coys of infantry. Plus about 3,000 of Poles under Potocki.
II – Smigelski with around 500-1,000 ravaged right bank of Narewa river & moved on the left bank under Henskin brigade’s protection. Henskin placed on the right bank of Narewa Ostafiev Dragoons, the rest 4 regiments of his brigade stayed on the other bank.
III – Lewenhaupt left in Riga around 100 dragoons & sent the rest of his cavalry on winter quarters in Livland (Walk, etc.). Around 500 Swedes appeared near Dorpat & had several encounters with Murzenok reitars around the town on 11-14th of November.
IV - Mid of November – Stromberg left Cracow to Waszawa with all his troops (4 IRs). In Cracow stayed only weak Stanislaw’s troops & cadres for new foot & dragoons.
V - Mid of Novemder – Smigelski raided right bank of Wistula river from Bug river to Sandomir.
VI - 24th of November (speculative, no exact date found) – Allies in Hrodno got news about Stromberg’s abandonment of Cracow. They decided to send GL Brause with several Saxon troops & 7,000 of Cossacks to take Sandomir & Cracow.
VII - 28th of November (speculative; the order was sent from Hrodno on Nov. 26, 1705) – Mazepa split his troops. He sent Chernigov & Gadych territorial pulks & Tanskoy enlisted mounted regiment to Sandomir to join Brause.
VIII - In the end of November Smigelski clashed at Sandomir about 300 of Stanislaw’s enlisted troops & then marched to Cracow
IX - 30th of November. A detachment of Henskin’s dragoons attacked Plock with 200 Swedes. Russians captured 1 ensign & 70 privates & killed the rest.
Any comments, remarks & supplements are welcomed!       
P.S. I updated the locations if you compare them with my post “Part VII”. The original Part VII will be updated soon. 

понедельник, 16 мая 2011 г.

Streltzy standard from Moscow Kremlin Armory.

Streltzy colours are still unexplored topic. From one hand we have Palmquist’s description of the Moscow Streltzy colours in 1674. They are very simply: cross, border & stars. Some documents & survived colours are of the same type. From other hand we have a lot of documents & survived colours (mostly so-called Salaty trophies) of the absolutely different type. They are rich decorated by Saint’s images, stars, “herbs”, mottos, etc. By the way, at the Salaty Swedes captured colours of the both types.  
Standard of unknown Streltzy unit
belonged to 9th sotnia/company, end of 17 c.
Moscow Kremlin Armory
(Click to enlarge)
I assume that the most of Streltzy had two sets of colours. Parade set was rich decorated with Saints, Orthodox Cross, “herbs”, stars, etc. Cloths were silk. All decorations embroidered or sewed on with using of gold & silver fibers. For everyday & campaign duties Streltzy used simple-styled colours. They were decorated with Orthodox Cross, a cross, stars & simple “herbs”. Decorations were painted or sewed on. Most of materials were cheap & simple.
At the left is a Streltzy standard from Moscow Kremlin Armory collection. It is silk, the size is 102x112 cm, so it looks like a standard. Some Streltzy troops were mounted, in this case they had standards, not colours.  It could be also a reitar standard, but they usually had a fringe & tassels. This standard is without them. Number of stars usually meant the number of “sotnia” (company). This standard had 9 stars, so evidently it belonged to the 9th “sotnia”. In 1862 it was in S-Peterburg. Next year it was transferred to Moscow Kremlin Armory together with 2 other such colours (with 5 & 8 stars respectively). 
Moscow Streltzy colours in 1674 (Palmquist)
Example of the rich decorated Streltzy colours, 1680-1690s

вторник, 10 мая 2011 г.

Lithuanian standard of Tizenhausen Reiters (Sigismund III's reign)

I would like to thank Dan Schorr & Michal Paradowski for their help & assistance, I highly appreciate their efforts. Original post on this topic contained a mistake. Illustrations in the source were changed & I didn't check them. Now all is right.
The source is: Grabowski W. Polskie choragwie z XVI-XVII wieku w zbiorach ikonograficznych Armemuseum w Sztokholmie // "Dawne Bron i Barwa" # 23, 2000, pp 3-30
click to enlarge

click to enlarge
It's mentioned that the standard is from the Swedish Trophy collection. I don't find it on the Digital Museum site, probably it doesn't survive. So, the only image is from Hoffman's album.

GNW campaign 1706, part VII: Summary of the opposing forces in Poland & Lithuania, end of Oct 1705

Below is a summary of the previous posts about opposing forces winter quarters. I marked troops by colors: Russians, pro-August Polish-Lithuanians, Saxons, Swedes, pro-Stanislaw Polish-Lithuanians. The summary is the following:
·        Anti-Swedish troops – ab. 95,000
·        Swedes & allies – ab. 38,000
For details see the table below the map. In the next posts I will put on the map troops movements (month by month). Any comments & remarks are welcomed. 
Opposing forces in Poland & Lithuania, end of Oct 1705
(click to enlarge)

Courland Corps under GL G. von Rosen
7 Dragoon Regs
Ab. 5,000

10 Inf batts
Ab. 4,000
Mitawa & Bausk


Garrison of Kowno, captain F. Kurkowski von Lukovan
Streltzy & dragoons

Main army under GFM O’Gilvy
17 Inf regs (34 batts)
103 cannons

понедельник, 9 мая 2011 г.

Lithuanian choragwies of Sigismund III’s reign

I found a couple of images of the Lithuanian powiatowy choragwies in a book about Belorussian towns & castles. They are dated “end of XVI c. – first half of XVII c.”. Two of them have Sigismund III’s title (1587-1632). I would be very appreciating for any additional details/info about these standards/choragwies.
Choragwie of Grodno

Choragwie of Slonim

Choragwie of Trocki

пятница, 6 мая 2011 г.

Siege of Julich 1621-22 by P. Snayers

Michal "Kadrinazi" placed a fine paint by Paulus von Hillegaert in his blog
My favorite painter is Peeter Snayers. His paints are always full of details. And one of the most favorite one is the Siege of Julich 1621-22. It presents details of the Spanish fortifications around the city & a cavalry cornet.
 Snayers P. A siege of a city, thought to be the siege of Gulik by the Spanish under the command of Hendrik van den Bergh, 5 September 1621-3 February 1622 
(click to enlarge)

вторник, 3 мая 2011 г.

Russian “New model” Foot regimental artillery 1632-34

Recent published volume (# 12) of “Armii I bitwy” magazine includes an outstanding article by Alexey Lobin about leather canons in Russian army. He found documents about production of the leather canons “after Swedish pattern” in Moscow in 1632-34. They were made by E. Koyet (transcription may be wrong). Total he made 104 leather canons, but only 32 passed the tests. Besides leather canons he also made “usual” canons. During the war of 1632-34 Russian “new model” foot regiments had 1 canon per company
Number of coys
Number of canons
Kyte (Keith?) Foot
Mattinson Foot
Kynemont Foot
Lesly Foot
Van Damme Foot
Unzen Foot
Rosform Foot
Gordon Dragoons
Source: Лобин А. Н. Русская артиллерия 1630-60 по шведскому образцу // Армии и битвы, № 12, СС 11-15

Leather canon from History of Germany Museum, Berlin
(illustration is taken from the article)