среда, 27 апреля 2011 г.

GNW Campaign 1706, part V, Supplement

Malorussian Cossacks under I. Mazepa. Left-bank Ukraine was under Russian rule & officially called Malorussia. It was governed by a hetman elected by local officials & approved by a Tzar. Till 1709 hetman’s position was hold by Ivan Mazepa. Malorussia was divided into 10 territorial ‘pulk’s (districts), each provided a ‘pulk’ (corps or regiment) ab. 1,000-1,500 each (depended on district’s size & population). These troops were a kind of militia, mixed foot & mounted. Also hetman had enlisted troops, so-called ‘okhotchie’ (mounted – ‘kompaneyskie’; foot – serdutckie’). In 1705 Mazepa had on roll 5 mounted & 5-7 foot enlisted regiments, 300-500 each. As a rule hetman provided for a campaign about a half of his military forces, the rest stayed at home & guarded southern frontier. In autumn 1705 the Corps under hetman I. Mazepa in southern Poland consisted of:
- 2 dragoon coys of Hetman’s Guard (Russian troops raised in spring 1705; commanders were major L. Larionov & captain I. Pokhvistnev), 100 men each
- 6 territorial ‘pulk’s of Malorussian/Ukranian Cossacks (Starodubovskiy, col. Miklashewich; Pereyaslavskiy, col. Mirovich; Chernigovskiy, col. Polubotok; Gadyachskiy, col. Borukhowich; Poltawskiy; Mirgorodskiy, col. D. Apostoll), ab. 1,000-1,500 each
- 2 hetman’s foot (‘serdutckie’) enlisted regiments Pokotil & Samoylovich, ab. 400 each
- 2 hetman’s mounted (‘kompaneyskie’) enlisted regiments Tanskoy & Priym, ab. 400 each
Russian Corps under voevoda of Sevsk S. Nepluev. It consisted of Dragoon regiment M. Zybin, 5 Foot (I. Khotunski, G. Repiev, A. Ragozin, Y. Ragozin, M. Franck) & 2 Streltzy (G. Annenkov, V. Koshelev). Dragoon & foot troops were raised in spring 1705 in Sevsk from local recruits. Five foot regiments had paper strength of 4,800, but in reality they were much less due to desertion & problems with supply. In Dec-1705 three regiments were in garrison of Zamostie, one – in Luck, the rest with Nepluev near Brest.
Swedish Army of Courland & garrison of Riga.  They numbered 39 battalions of infantry (18 regiments & 3 independent battalions), 4 Reitar regiments (Abo, Karelska, Livlandska Adelsfan, Estlandska Adelsfan), 3 Dragoon regiments (Upplands Ståndsdragonregemente, Schlippenbach W-A, Schreitenfeldt G.C.) & 4 Dragoon battalions (Karelska, Oselska, Livlandska lantdragonbataljonens; Skogh G.R.). I don’t find clear split of the Swedish troops in Riga into Army of Courland under Lewenhaupt & Riga garrison. In January-1706 Lewenhaupt wrote that his Army of Courland numbered 5,000 of Foot & 3,000 Mounted.   

воскресенье, 24 апреля 2011 г.

GNW Campaign 1706, part IV, Saxon & Polish troops in Poland, end Oct 1705

Positions of the Polish Crown & Saxon troops in the Western & Southern Poland, Oct 1705
P.S. I put Saxons in a wrong location. Map will be updated soon
(Click to enlarge)

Crown army. I don’t have complete info about Polish Crown army strength & disposition in the autumn 1705. Komput of 1706 (agreed on Dec 20, 1705) included 2,080 ‘koni’ of Hussaria (16 choragwies), 8,660 ‘koni’ of Pancerni (102 choragwie), 3,000 of Jazda Lekka (36 choragwies), 1,300 ‘koni’ of Arkabuzeria (3 regiments & 3 frei-companies), 4,360 ‘porcia’ of Dragonia (3 regiments & 21 choragwie) & 16,600 ‘porcia’ of Foot (21 battalions & 5 choragwies; 4 choragwies of Hungarian infantry). It’s link to the real situation with Crown forces in the end of 1705 is unclear, Wimmer doesn’t provide info about Komput in 1705.
The core of the Crown army under Great Crown Hetman H. Lubomirski (80 choragwies out of 86 known) took winter quarters in the southern Poland:
1.               Pulk under pulkownik Dluzewski between rivers Raba & San: 5 Hussar & 11 Pancerni choragwies
2.               Pulk under Field Crown Hetman A. Sieniawski between San & Podolia: 10 Hussar & 19 Pancerni Choragwies
3.               Pulk under Grzybowski in Podolia: 1 Hussar, 16 Pancerni & 1 Light choragwies
4.               Pulk under Kalinowski in Polisie: 15 Pancerni & 2 Light choragwies
5.               In Warmia – 6 choragwies (unknown type)
No info about Crown infantry & ‘foreign’ cavalry
6.  Saxon army under Schulemburg & Russian auxiliary Corps under Patkull.
Saxon army. Saxon army under Schulemburg took winter quarters in the western Poland on the frontier with Silesia. It numbered 19 battalions (9,711 men), 42 squadrons (2,000), 4 coy of Artillery (300) with 32 canons & 54 small mortars. Their positions are speculative.
Schulenburg's army in Feb 1706 from Schuster & Francke

Russian Auxiliary Corps. Till Dec 20, 1705 Corps commander was GL Johann-Reinhold von Patkull. Then he was arrested by Saxons & replaced by GL H. Goltz. Corps strength & composition in Oct-1705 are unknown. I assume for many reasons that Bespalov’s data are speculative (I will analyze them a little bit later). By 12/23 Feb 1706 the Corps consisted of 10 batts, 6,362 men. Their positions are speculative. It could be that Russians had winter quarters separately from Saxons

четверг, 21 апреля 2011 г.

GNW Campaign of 1706, part III, Swedish troops in Poland, end Oct 1705

(click to enlarge)

According to the materials I have, Carl XII had in Poland in Oct 1705 his Drabanten, 9 Reiter, 10 Dragoon & 14 Infantry regiments.  

Allied Polish-Lithuanian troops included Corps under King Stanislaw I (8 Polish & 17 wallachian choragwies; totaled ab. 1,500) in Warsawa, Polish Corps under I. Potocki (ab. 3,000; location is unclear) & Lithuanian Corps under Sapieha (ab. 2,000; location is unclear). Stanislaw’s Foot Guard was destroyed by Russian dragoons in Praha in October 1705. Stanislaw’s dragoons were forming in Cracow & were destroyed by Smigelski in Nov 1705. 
1.      Royal army in Blonia: Drabanten, 2 Reitars (Livregementet till hast & Sodra Skanska), 4 Dragoons (Meierfelt, Taube, Ducker, Stenbock), 2 Infantry (Livgardet till fot, 4 batts; Pommerska varvade or Horn, 2 batts), Enspannare company (company of general-quartermaster, mounted guides).
2.      Warsawa garrison under GL Niroth: 3 Reitars (Ostgota, Vastgota, Upplands tremännings or Kruse), 2 Infantry (Dal & Uppland)
3.      Corps under GL Stromberg in Cracow: 4 Infantry (Ostgota, Skaraborg, Jonkoping, Kalmar)
4.      Army under GFM Rehnskiold: 3 Reitar (Norsa Skanska; Nylands och Tavastahus; Adelsfanan i Sverige och Finland, 4 coys), 5 Dragoons (Livdragonregementet, Skånska Ståndsdragonregementet, Pommerska or Muller,  Bremiska or Krassaw, Verdiska or Marschalk), Wallachians (ab. 2 sqns), 5 Infantry (Kronoberg, Narke-Varmland, Sodermanland, Vastmanland, Vesterbotten) – around Poznan?
5.      Garrison of Elbing: Elbingska garnisonsregementet (col. K. Ekeblad)
In the next post I will give details about Saxons & Poles

Text is updated on Apr 24,2011

вторник, 19 апреля 2011 г.

GNW Campaign of 1706, part II, Allied (Russians, Saxons, Poles, Lithuanians) winter quarters in Eastern Poland & Lithuania, Nov 1705

click to enlarge
Winter campaign 1705-06 raises my great interest. I don’t know any complex research which covers both Fraustadt & Grodno (Hrodno) campaigns. Here in the blog I will try to summarize materials I have. I start from the beginning of November 1705. Swedes hadn’t yet agreed their plan for winter campaign & didn’t concentrate forces around Warsaw. Russian main army took winter quarters around Grodno. Some other smaller Corps (mostly cavalry) covered its position from Pultusk to Lublin. From Livland army in Riga Russian main army was covered by a Corps under Rosen in Courland. According to materials I have, allied winter quarters in Nov 1705 were the following:
1.      Courland Corps under GL G. von Rosen: 7 dragoon regiments (ab. 3,500-4,000) & 10 battalions (ab. 4,000)
2.      Garrison of Cowno, 300 Streltzy & dragoons under captain F. Kurkowski von Lukovan
3.      Main Army under GFM O’Gilvy: 17 regiments (34 batts; 21,950 men, see my previous post http://rusmilhist.blogspot.com/2011/04/russian-army-at-grodno-january-march.html )
4.      Garrison of Tykocin: Streltzy regiments I. Nechaev (commandant) & M. Protopopov, totaled ab. 1,000
5.      Brigade GM I. Henskin, 5 dragoon regiments, ab. 3,500 (see previous post)
6.      Brigade GM G. Pflug, 5 dragoon regiments, ab. 3,500 (see previous post)
7.      Malorussian Cossacks under hetman I. Mazepa (ab. 7,000-10,000) & Corps under S. Nepluev (1 dragoon & 4 weak foot regimets, around 2,500)
8.      Lithuanians under Grand Lithuanian Hetman Wisniowecki (ab. 50 choragwies) & Lithuanian dragoons under gen. Sinicki, totaled ab. 5,000
9.      Lithuanians under Pocei, ab. 1,500
10.   Saxon Cavalry under GL Brause: 6 Cuirassier (Lieb, Kurprinz, Konigin, Eichstadt, Winckel, Flemming) & 4 Dragoon (Leib, Milkau, Brause, Schulenburg) regiments, totaled ab. 4,000
This post is about only allied forces in Eastern Poland & Lithuania. Later I will add the post about a situation in Poland & Baltic provinces.  

I will be appreciate if someone could add any info or recommend any additional source.

понедельник, 18 апреля 2011 г.

GNW Campaign of 1706, part I: Russian Army at Grodno January-March 1706

Below is updated re-post of my material from www.northernwars.com
The strength and organization of the Russian Army in the camp at Grodno from January through March 1706 is one of the unclear points in the history of the Great Northern War. Recent published table of the Russian army at Grodno on Oct 28, 1705 presents 17 regiments (34 batts, actual strength 21,950 incl. sick , non-combatants & assigned): Preobrazenskiy (3), Semenovskiy (3), Ingermanlandskiy (3), O’Gilvy (2), Gen. A. Repnin (2), GM. I. Chambers (1), G. Golovkin (2), GM W. von Schweiden (2), Butyrskiy (1), Brig. S. Aigustov (1), K. Gulitc (2), I. Mews (2), D. Rydder (2), I. Angler (2), I. van Deldin (2), A. Kelling (2), P. Hassenuis (2).
Encampment of the Russian troops in Grodno, Jan-March 1706 

четверг, 14 апреля 2011 г.

Russian garrison of Mohylev, 1655

Below are 2 reports by 'golova' (colonel) of Moscow Streltzy A. Lopukhin & L. Anichkov about events of Mohylev's siege. According to materials I have Russian (!) garrison of Mohylev included the following troops:
- 'new model' foot regiment I. Nirotmortcev, 1,005 men (his letter dated 21 Dec 1654, Архивы, относящиеся к истории Южной и Западной России. т. 14. СПб, 1883. стлб 468); Nirotmortcev died during the siege
- 'new model' foot regiment H. v. Staden, 1,500 men
- Moscow Streltzy prikaz (regiment) L. Anichkov, 353 men (see below, АМГ-2, № 704, с. 630)
- Moscow Streltzy prikaz (regiment) A. Lopukhin, 428 men (see below, АМГ-2, № 662, с. 408-409)
So, total is about 3,200-3,300 men

понедельник, 11 апреля 2011 г.

Swedish garrison of Riga, 9 Nov 1709

Many thanks to Dan Schorr & Bengt Nilsson for their help. The list of the IRs in the Riga garrison in 1709 is the following (names after Hoglund's work):
1. Abo, col Horn Chr.
2. Bjorneborg, GM Stackelberg B.O.
3. Viborgs, col. Mellin G.A.
4. Nylands, col. Budberg G.W.
5. Osterbottens, col. Vietinghoff E.J.
6. Guvernementsregementet i Riga, GM Clodt v. Jurgensburg J.A.
7. Garnisonsregementet i Riga, col. Hillebard E.
8. Livländskt varvade Skytte, GM Skytte K.G.
9. Livländskt varvade Mengden, col. Mengden C.F.
10. Livländskt varvade Beckern, col. Bechern Johan Wilhelm
11. H.G. von Buddenbrocks sammansatta garnisonsregemente i Riga, col. Buddenbrocks H.G. 
12. Per Baners sammansatta garnisonsregemente i Riga, col. P. Baner
Table of the Swedish Garrison of Riga, 9 Nov 1709
Source: Arfwidsson F. Försvaret av Östersjöprovinserna 1708-1710. Celle, 1936. p.400-401

воскресенье, 10 апреля 2011 г.

Swedish garrison of Riga, 10 July, 1710 (Capitulation)

Several days ago I posted a list of Riga garrison in Oct 1709 from Swedish sources (see here: http://rusmilhist.blogspot.com/2011/04/swedish-garrison-of-riga-end-of-sept.html ). It includes 12 IRs. I identified all of them except for “Ov. Dyker”. Maybe it’s Savolax (och Nyslotts) regemente? It was in the garrison of Dunamunde & capitulated several days after Riga’s fall. Hoglund mention that it was under col. J. von Cronman. No any Dyker (Duker) is mentioned as an infantry colonel at all.
Russian “Gistoria Sveyskoi voiny” (History of a war with Sweden) written by Peter the Great’s secretary Makarov has a list of Swedish garrison of Riga on July 10th, 1710 (date of capitulation). It includes data by regiments. There 11 IRs in it. Finish indelta are named after provinces, all other – after commanders. I identified all of them except
-        Ov.-lieut. Bekker regiment (25 officers & 358 other ranks by July 10,1710)
-        Ov. Wilhelm Bekker (25 officers & 314 other ranks)
I will be pleased if someone could check these names (Dyker/Duker & both Bekker/Becker) in Lewenhaut’s Karl XII:s officerare.
               On July 10, 1710 Swedish garrison numbered 5 132 men, incl. 2 905 sick & ill. Swedish GM Clodt told Russians that epidemic of plague started when “a dog with 2 heads swam across Duna river from Kurland”.
Реестр, коликое число в Риге было людей (10 июля 1710)

Patent given to Lukas Rosudowski to raise a Cossack Choragwie in Minsk, Dec 1654

Source: Виленская комиссия для разбора древних актов. Т.34. Акты относящиеся ко времени войны за Малороссию. 1909. C. 29-30. (Some parts of the text are translated into the Russian by a publisher)

среда, 6 апреля 2011 г.

вторник, 5 апреля 2011 г.

Swedish garrison of Riga, end of Sept 1709

At the start of the siege Swedish garrison numbered 10,414 men:
Important note: Dyker evidently is a mistake, the right name is Bechern, Johan Wilhelm. He was a colonel of the Livland varvade (enlisted) regiment

Source (p. 172)

понедельник, 4 апреля 2011 г.

One more list of the allied forces in northern Italy on 15 June 1707 (siege of Toulon 1707, part II)

List of Allied forces dated 15 June 1707 from: Pelet J. Voult F. Mémoires militaires relatifs à la succession d'Espagne sous Louis XIV. Paris, 1842. Tome VII. P. 363-365

Swedish BO in the battle of Narva, 19(20)/30 Nov 1700

Plan de la ville de Narva... 20 de November 1700
by Z. von Wolff, no date
(image is 1,7 MB; click to enlarge for details of the Swedish formations &
evolutions in the battle)
In the battle Swedish infantry of 16 battalions formed 21 “field battalions” (some of them were only of 2 coys). Grenadiers were in avant guard of the infantry lines.

Unit/Field formation
Commanding officer
Number of coys
Right flank

G.d.C. O. Welling


GM K. Posse

Avant guard

Livgardet till  fot
Lieut. F. Rehnskiold

Livgardet till  fot
Kapt. J. Sperling
Grenadier battalion
1st line

Livgardet till  fot
Major K. Numers
2nd battalion

Livgardet till  fot
o-l K. Palmquist
1st battalion

пятница, 1 апреля 2011 г.

Swedish High Sea Fleet 1700

Gen.-Amiral H. Wachtmeister
Amiral C. Ankarstjerna
Amiral F. Taube
Vice Am. v. Numers
Vice Am. O. Sjöstjerna
Vice Am. De Prou
Schoutbynacht Wattrang
Schoutbynacht C. Sparre
Schoutbynacht C. Ruth.
Note: the list below doesn't include small ships (5th & 6th ranked) & galley fleet
Ship name
Prinsessan Ulrika
Prins Carl