понедельник, 31 марта 2014 г.

Saxon siege artillery, captured at Dunamunde on Dec 1701

Two Saxon 24-pdr cannons, captured at Dunamunde:
- cast in 1686 (top)
- cast in 1653 (bottom)
(Drawing by J. Thelott, Armemuseum, Stockholm)
Saxons opened operations against Riga in February of 1700 (see more), but they brought the siege artillery to the city only in July of 1700. On 18 July the Polish-Saxon army (see more) crossed Duna river & on the next day it defeated Swedish army under Otto Welling in the battle of Probstingoff or Jungfernhoff (modern Jumprava). The victory allowed Saxons to start siege work & create batteries on the right bank of Duna river. The bombardment started on 27 August. Saxons brought a limited volume of powder & cannon-balls from Saxony, and they were over by 8 of September. It made King August to lift the siege & retreat back on the left bank of the Duna. The siege artillery was put in Dunamunde fortress.
Two Saxon 24-pdr cannons, captured at Dunamunde:
- cast in 1696 (top)
- cast in 1686 (bottom)
(Drawing by J. Thelott, Armemuseum, Stockholm)
In July of 1701 Saxon army was defeated by Karl XII in the battle on Duna river & retreated into Courland. Dunamunde was blocked by Swedish troops. It's garrison consisted of unknown number of Saxons under colonel Kanitz & 4 coys of Russian infantry (ab. 460 men) under lieutenant-colonel Herman (Eremey) Schwart. It capitulated on 21 December 1701 on the terms of free passage. On 28 December the garrison numbered 1074 men, both Saxons & Russians.  
Swedes captured in Dunamunde 79 cannons (incl. 2 ex-Swedish lost in March of 1700) & 18 mortars.
The Saxon cannons (77) were the following: 36 24-pdr, 2 16-pdr, 21 12-pdr, 10 6-pdr, 8 3-pdr.
Saxon mortars (18): 4 196-pdr, 4 96-pdr, 4 64-pdr, 3 32-pdr, 3 16-pdr.
The most of cannons & mortars were casted in 1650-1680s. Their description you can see in the "Specification of the trophies" at the bottom of the post. The engravings of the trophied cannons were done by J. Thelott.

Саксонская осадная артиллерия, захваченная в Дюнамюнде 22 декабря 1701 г.

Saxon cannons, captured at Dunamunde:
- Polish 3-pdr (left)
- 196-pdr mortar 
- Saxon howitzer
(Drawing by J. Thelott, Armemuseum, Stockholm)
Саксонцы начали операции против Риги еще в феврале 1700 (см подробнее), но крепнокалиберную артиллерию для ведения нормальной осады привезли лишь в конце июля 1700 г. Разбив Веллинга 19 июля в сражении при Пробштингофе или Юнгфернхофе (совр. лат. Jumprava), саксонцы подошли к стенам города и начали сооружение батарей. Бомбардировка началась 27 августа, но запасы привезенных из Саксонии пороха и ядер были незначительны, и уже 8 сентября король Август был вынужден снять осаду, и увезти осадную артиллерию на зиму в Дюнамюнде (переименованную в Августбург). Весной 1701 возобновить осаду Риги саксонцам не удалось. В июле они были разбиты в битве на Двине, и отступили вглубь Курляндии. Гарнизон Августбурга под командованием полковника Каница был отрезан и сидел в блокаде до 21 декабря 1701, когда, наконец,
Saxon mortars, captured at Dunamunde:
- 64-pdr
- 32-pdr
(Drawing by J. Thelott, Armemuseum, Stockholm)
капитулировал на правах свободного выхода. Надо отметить, что в июле 1701 в Августбург были направлены 2 роты полка Томаса Юнгора (капитанов Ивана Колтовского и Ивана Мещерского), рота капитна Василия Владычкина из полка Тимофея Трейдена и рота капитана Степана Оленина из полка Дениса Рыддера - всего около 460 чел. под общим командованием подполковника Еремея Шварта из полка Юнгора. На 28 декабря гарнизон насчитывал 1074 чел., сколько из них было русских и подробности их возвращения домой неизвестны, Еремей Шварт указан подполковником одного из солдатских полков главной армии уже в конце 1702 г.
В Дюнамюнде шведы захватили 79 пушек и 18 мортир. Пушки: 36 24-фунтовые, 2 16-фунтовые, 21 12-фунтовая, 10 6-фунтовых, 10 3-фунтовых (вкл. 2 бывшие шведские захваченные весной 1700 г.). Мортиры: 4 196-фунтовые, 4 96-фунтовые, 4 64-фунтовые, 3 32-фунтовые, 3 16-фунтовые.
Большинство из указанных орудий были отлиты в 1650-1680х, но также встречаются и образцы, отлитые в XVI веке. Отлив крупнокалиберных орудий был дорогим и трудоемким делом, и в XVIII в. считалось абсолютно нормальным использовать качественно отлитые орудия, которым по 50-100 лет. Это позволяет по-иному взглянуть на рассхожий термин об "устареших образцах орудий" под нарвой в 1700 г.
Описания всех захваченных пушек приведено в "Спецификации...", а рисунки 20 пушек и 5 мортир приведены в работе Я. Фелотта.  

13 комментариев:

  1. The action at Probstinghoff would appear to have been a minor one. Acoording to Vellingk he sent a detachment of 2 700 men under the command of Major General Maydell, but it could not remain because of supply problems. Vellingk then gathered his entire force and tried to get the Saxons into a pitched battle, but they stayed in their fortifications. Vellingk at that point decided to fall back, blaming Dahlbergh for his supply problems. Dahlbergh on the other hand was most unhappy with Vellingk's conduct of operations, believing that the general should have crossed the Daugava as soon as possible after arriving with the army instead of just waiting passively. In Vellingk's opinion a crossing was not possible as it would have violated the neutrality of Courland (and of the Commonwealth).The King came down very clearly on Dahlbergh's side and gave Vellingk a reprimand.

  2. On the 19th (Swedish style) Vellingk informed Dahlbergh that the first news came from a detachment under the command of Major Rosen, who could not attack because of heavy Saxon artillery supporting from the other shore. Vellingk responded by gathering his army and parading it in view of king Augustus and the Saxon commanders and then sent Maydell with 1,000 cavalry and 1,500 infantry and later an additional 200 cavalry. The Saxons were at that point, he wrote, 2,000 infantry and 120 cavalry. The Saxons had built fortifications, but the bridge was only half finished. Due to the very strong winds Vellingk believed it unlikely that they would be able to do much more that day.The rain had made the Swedish weapons useless, so Maydell had not attacked. He would have liked to remain, but the soldiers had not received anything to eat so he felt it necessary to fall back. The following day Vellingk intended to bring his entire army and attack the Saxon position. On the 20th (Swedish style) he did go there, but by then te Saxons had brough substantial reinforcements across. Vellingk did not dare to attack and after in vain inviting the Saxons to come out and fight he retreated.(EAA 278.1.XX-17 and RA, Skrivelser till Konungen. Karl XII, vol. 29)

    1. Bengt, thank you very much for the additional info!
      Do you know the Polish relation about the crossing & the battle (on French)?

    2. No I am not familiar with it, but it sounds very strange. I have looked at a number of different reports from Vellingk and others and the only skirmish mentioned is one on the day after Vellingk retreated, when Saxon forces fought a couple of Swedish regiments who lost about a dozen men.

    3. See a brief description here:
      “Scots gentlman in the Swedish service”. The history of the wars of his late majesty Charles XII King of Sweden. Oxford. 1720. P. 34

    4. Well, "Scots gentleman" is an entirely ficticious memoir, often attributed to Daniel Defoe. As far as I can tell it refers to the same encounter described by Vellingk: during the retreat 2 squadrons of Åbo cavalry fought a rearguard action and was supported by one infantry regiment. According to Vellingk the Swedes lost about a dozen men and the enemy also some. A printed account, claimed to originate from Mitau says that the Swedes lost about 25 killed and captured and the Saxon side some officers and soldiers as well as 30 horses that came over to the Swedish side.

    5. According to Vellingk the Åbo & Björneborg Cavalry regiment and the Björneborg Infantry regiment were involved in the fighting. The latter lost 4 killed and 5 wounded according to a muster roll from August (Rullor 1620-1723, , SE/KrA/0022/1700/4 (1700)), see Lindh, E., Kongliga Björbneborgs regemente. - Helsingfors, 1928 (p. 75).

    6. Bengt, thank you very much for the additional details about the action! It helps to make clear the situation. I will send you a Polish relation on e-mail

    7. A Swedish historian in 1911 published an analysis of "Scots gentleman" and found that as a memoir it was quite impossible, the author not knowing things that were common knowledge, while he in other cases tells stories that are extremely imaginative. Among peculiar mistakes one notes the statement that the battle of Kliszow was fought on the second anniversary of the Narva battle. The Swedish historian also noted that the "Scots gentleman" says that he was captured at Perevolochna but then in the continuation published in 1720 claims to have "lived among the turks" and been present in Pomerania in 1715.

    8. I found a reference that Welling attacked at Jungfernfoff a Saxon infantry column on 30 or 31 of July & took 1 colour, 6 cannons & about 400 wagoons. Also Saxons lost abot 70 killed & 116 PoWs

    9. Not something I can see any trace of in Vellingks letters to Charles XII. By then he had retreated from the vicinity of Riga (on 1 August his headquarters was at Rujen (Rujiena).

  3. The Battle of Probstingoff or Jungfernhoff sounds very interesting. I've never heard about it before. So thanks for the information Bengt! But, what regiments participated? Was it maybe Nyland's Infantry along with men from the Riga garrision. Or am I wrong?

    1. Probstingoff or Jungfernhoff is one of less-known battles of GNW. I believe it's because it was a Swedish defeat in a times of Swedish triumth. And it was not a decisive battle. The victory allowed King August to start the siege of Riga, but it proceeded without any success. At the same time it was a pretty large battle for GNW. The total number of participants was about 20-25,000

      Velling had the following Finish regiments:
      Infantry (9 batts)
      - Abo, 2
      - Bjorneborg, 2
      - Tavastehus, 2
      - Savolax, 2
      - Nyland, the 2nd battalion (the 1st was in Riga)
      - Nylland Rytters
      - Abo Rytters
      - Estland or Drottingen Rytters (a part)
      - Carlska Dragoon Squadron
      plus a detachement from Riga garrison

      Polish-Saxon-Courland troops are available here: