четверг, 29 января 2015 г.

Lithuanian colours and standards lost in the battle of Chausy, 16 May 1662

In 2013 Dan Schorr & me done a reconstruction of the Lithuanian colours, lost in the battle of Wilno on 8 August 1655 (link). A couple of days ago I found a brief description of the Lithuanian colours & standards lost in the battle of Chausy on 16 May 1662 (see it in the Russian part of the post). That day a Russian Corps under Major General William Drummond of Cromlix (3.119 men with 4 cannons) was attacked by superior Lithuanian forces (ab. 6.000) on its route from Smolensk to Bykhow. Russians repelled the attack & made Lithuanians to retreat with a loss of 15 colours & standards, one cannons & at least 92 PoWs. Soloviev wrote, that Russians destroyed 15 choragwies of "Polish Foot" at that action.
My friend Stanislav Lyulin kindly agreed to paint captured Lithuanian colours after their brief description. Out of 15 colours 8 are mentioned as "mounted", the rest are "foot". Evidently "mounted" colours were smaller, about 80-150cm long. We proposed that all standards of the mounted troops were tailed (like this one: link). "Foot" colours evidently were a large squares of about 180-250 cm long.
# 1 - white reitar standard with St. Mary
## 3-7 - standards of the mounted choragwies
## 2 & 10-14 - colours of the foot choragwies
Two colours we couldn't reconstruct (## 8 & 15).
P.S. Comments & remarks are well-commend.

Литовские знамена и штандарты, потерянные под Чауссами, 16 мая 1662 г.

Недавно в Дополнениях к "Дервностям российского государства" Яковлева мне попались описания литовских знамен и штандартов, захваченных 16 мая 1662 под Чауссами (см ниже). В тот день русский отряд генерал-майора Вилима Дроммонда (3.119 чел с 4 орудиями), сопровождавший обоз из Смоленска в Быхов, был атакован численно превосходящими литовскими войсками, насчитывавшими ок. 6.000 чел. Дроммонду удалось не только отбить атаку, но и нанести поражение противнику, захватив 15 знамен, пушку и 92 пленных. Соловьев пишет, что в этом бою было разбито "15 хоругвей польской пехоты".

В 2013 г. мы с Дэном Шором уже делали попытку реконструкции литовских знамен, взятых под Вильно в 1655 г. (ссылка). В этот раз художником согласился выступить мой хороший друг Станислав Люлин. Из 15 "чаусских трофеев" 8 обозначены как знамена конных частей. Мы предположили, что речь идет о хоругвях с двумя хвостами (см. напр.: ссылка). Их размер обычно был околот 80-150 см. Оставшиеся 7 знамен - это большие квадратные знамена пехотных хоругвей размером не менее 180-250 см.

9 комментариев:

  1. Interesting one Vlad, especially that I cannot find trace of that battle in Polish/Lithuanian sources at all :) Number of Lithuanian troops seems to be very high - not only overall numbers but also number of companies/banners of foot. I will look into all available sources I have, I'm really curious about this one. Did Russian source mentioned any names of Lithuanian commanders involved in battle?

    1. Trust me, that I can mention you about 10 middle-sized battles of 13YW in Lithuania, that are not described in printed sources :). I will check archive papers on Chausy on next week

    2. Sources:

      (notes 6-7)


    3. Макс, я эту ссылку себе уже выписал, на следующей неделе посмотрю в РГАДА документы. Там, возможно, все не так просто и однозначно, как написано в комментах к Гордону. По крайней мере, Олег К. смог вселить в меня некоторые сомнения

    4. Так я и не имею ничего против :) Просто решил скинуть вопросителю пару ссылок на русские источники...

    5. Обозы с припасами из Смоленска в Быхов отправляли каждый год в 1661-63 (в начале 1664 город сдали), и Олег мне рекомендовал перепроверить все обстоятельства по оригиналам документов. Судя по всему там будет и отписка о численности, и распросные речи пленных

    6. Vlad, I'm certain that there's many battles that are not mentioned, problem is that which such big encounter like here and with such big losses on Lithuanian side there should be some trace of it :) So far I checked Gordon (English original), Chrapowicki, Poczobut-Odlanicki, Drobusz Tyczyński, Jemiołowski and Medeksza - no trace of it. As I mentioned before, strength of Lithuanian troops in this battle seems too high. Whole Lithuanian army at that time had 'on paper' 22 800 horses and portions (Sapieha's division: 12 718, Pac's division: 10 082) but real strenght was much lower, therefore it would be very difficult to field 6000 men from one division. It would be useful if Russian sources mention names of any captures officers - that would allow to identify which units they led and from which division was Lithuanian force.

    7. In 1660s the "Russian front" was mostly hold by volunteers & powiatowi choragwies, not komput. Some voluntary Corps were about 2-3.000 strong & included even reitars

      I will check the papers about Chausy in Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA) this Friday

  2. Well, there's one volunteer 'army' that include reiters that I know about and it was just 60 men (in Jan Lubeck's command) so no big thing ;) Komput troops were present - for example in defending line of Dźwina river in 1662 - but I agree with You that volunteers in some areas would compose larger part of troops. There's much bigger problem with district (powiatowe) troops as in 1660s one can't see them in sources. There were as much as 2000 district troops taking part in 1655 campaign but in 1660s local 'sejmiki' lacked willpower, manpower and (especially) money to raise expensive troops of that kind.