пятница, 17 декабря 2010 г.

Dolgorukiy's report about battle of Werki, Nov 1658

Besides the Shakhowskoy’s reports the only Russian published document about Werki campaign is Dolgorukiy’s report dated mid-November 1658. It describes September-November events. Unfortunately there are no details about the battle of Werki, only general words that “it happened”. Below is a short summary in English & full text in Russian. Source: Акты Московского государства. Т. 2.

“On Sept 29 Dolgorukiy got news that Semen Brynk Dragoons (1,200 settled dragoons from Skopin & Romanov) with train were surrounded & attacked by Sapieha in 25 miles from Wilno. Brynk entrenched in fortified camp & repulsed all attacks (attacks continued at least 6 days, from 29 of Sept till 4 of Oct). Then Sapieha came to Wilno & took positions in 10 miles from Wilno.
On Oct 10 Lithuanian captive told that Sapieha & Gonsiewski planned joint attack on Dolgorukiy’s forces. Dolgorukiy decided to attack them first in the morning Oct 11. He left a part of Osip Sukin’s Corps to cover camp & Wilno. His back was covered from Sapieha by Volynskiy’s Corps…
When Sapieha got news about Gonsiewski defeat he retreated to Nowogrodok…
On Oct 19 Russian envoys with Odoevskiy left Wilno to Moscow. They were escorted by v. Strobel reitar regiment (evidently participated in the battle)…
Roads from Wilno to Smolensk & Polotck were cut off by Cossacks under Nechai & Murashko…
After the battle Dolgorukiy marched to Shklov through Borisov. In Wilno he left in addition to garrison regiments Y. Urvin Foot (1,500; regiment was reinforced to the full strength from other Dolgorukiy’s regiments). In garrison of Borisov he left T. Belie (481 men), voevoda/governor – Fedor Narbekov.
Lithuanian captives told that Gonsiewski had 8 choragwies of hussars (50-40-30 men), 12 coys of reitars (160-100 men), 7 choragwies f pancerni Cossacks (200-170-100 men), Gonsiewski’s pancerni choragwie (200), 12 coys of dragoons (180-160-100 men). In his camp he left 10 coys of German foot, 2 choragwies of Hungarian foot, a coy of dragoons, 8 cannons”.
Отписка Виленского воеводы князя Юрия Долгорукого о битве при Верках, 11/22 октября 1658

13 комментариев:

  1. That's great source of information, even though infromations about Gosiewski's force are quite odd. On my blog I've tried to identify units (16 to 18 banners of cavalry) that hetman had with him in battle:
    For example he couldn't have 8 banners of husaria, as whole Lithuanian army didn't have so many of them at that time. Do I understand correctly that numbers You gave in brackets in English version are supposed to be strenght of units?


  2. The part about Lithuanian forces is in the middle of the 4th page, right column. Numbers in the brackets are strength after captives words.

    Basing on the docs I placed Dolgorukiy's army includes at least (!) the following troops:
    - 2 reitar regiments, ab. 1 700: A. v. Trurnicht (Trautmansdorf?) & Iogann v. Stroibel
    - 6 foot regiments, ab. 4 200-4 300 men: Thomas Daleil, Daniel Craufort, Yuri Kyte, Kasper Yander, Thomas Belye, Adam Gohwart
    - 2 prikazes of Moscow Streltzy, ab. 850: Semen Kokovkin & Ivan Endourov
    - at least 1 dragoon regiment (from Sukin's Corps)
    plus pomestnye - feudal levy

    1. Gromoboy, where did you get this info from?
      I'm really interested in the names of commanders of streltzy prikazes. Could you please tell more about it?

    2. Georgy Budnyy: the sorce is printed volume of docs "The acts of the Moscow State". It's original title in Russian is: Акты Московского государства. Т. 2ю Сю Петербург, 1894. It's avalable on-line here: http://www.runivers.ru/lib/book3031/9534/

    3. Thank you for the link. I read all of it.wow, it's a lot! I also checked the list of names in the end. But couldn't find the following:
      "2 prikazes of Moscow Streltzy, ab. 850: Semen Kokovkin & Ivan Endourov".
      I'm looking for any info about Semen Kokovkin.
      I would really appreciate any help.

  3. Michal, don't forget that Gosiewski besides komput choragwies (hussar & pancerni) also had powetowy (levy) choragwies. They also were hussars & pancerni.

  4. Polish sources of battle give only figure of 16 or 18 banners in total. District (powiatowe) ) were present in very small number and as far as I know only in Komorowski's part of division (it was cossacks banner of wilkomierski powiar, where Poczobut Odlanicki served) that didn't took part in battle. Also in that period there were rarely any husaria rised as district troops, majority of them were cossacks/pancerni as cost to rise husaria was too high. There no officers of levy/district troops mentioned on list of losses as well.


  5. Page 4 (# 215), right column, upper part, list of captives:
    - Newerowski (you know him)
    - Shkutyn, leutenant-colonel of reitars
    - hussar poruchik Nikolay Sologub from Orsa powet (sorry for my Polish)
    - hussar poruchik Knistof Poniatowski, chashnik minski (again sorry for my bad Polish)
    Present of the powitowy choragwies in Sapieha & Gosiewski forces also mention Dolgorukiy

  6. Your Polish is obviously much better than my Russian :) I'll try to identify those two husaria's officers, in sources I have access to no such units of district husaria is mentioned and it's completely new information to me. Poniatowski would be 'cześnik miński', that 'Orsa powet' is bit problem though.

  7. Orsa = Orsza on Dniepr river, it was stolica powiatuin in Vitebsk voevodstvo
    In 1656 many Lithuanian magnates suggested the Tzar to raise hussar troops for Riga campaign. It was not a problem. Hussar choragwies also mention among north-west powiati rushenie

  8. In theory each Lithuanian district was supposed to rise, within noble levy, one banner of husaria but in reality that rarely happened. Nobles were not very eager to stand as levy (especially after heavy defears of regular Lithuanian army in 1654) so they instead pay for enlisted troops to be rised. I find that Żmudź set such banner of 200 husaria in 1655 but, up till now and sources quoted by You, I wasn't able to find of evidence of district husaria being rised and used in post-1655 campaign. It required further study, after all there was huge problem to rise enlist banners of husaria in regular army (in period 1656-1658 there were only 5 such banners) and it sounds quite surprising that levy/district units were to be rised in larger number

  9. I met with Konrad Bobyatinski a couple of months ago. He told me that someone (I don't remember the name) is studying 1658 events. I will write & ask him. Also Oleg Kurbatov from RGADA (Russian State archive of Ancient Acts) find a lot of docs about Lithuanian units on the Tzar's service. Let's wait when they will be published. Now it's very hard to find the right answer on a limited number of sources.

  10. That's great news, it would be great to read some new research about 1658 campaign.