четверг, 5 ноября 2020 г.

Russian military demonstrations on the Swedish border, 1675-1677

In 1675-1677 Russian government influenced by Danish & Austrian diplomats made serious military demonstrations on Swedish border. It mobilized military troops of Novgorod Razryad - a military district, composed of the north-west Russian territories bordered Swedish Baltic provinces & Finland. It numbered about 10,500 field (!) troops: 1.200 mounted feudal levy ("pomestnaya konnitca"), ab. 400 hussars (Polish-styled) in 5 coys, ab. 400 "kopeyshiki" (lancers) in 5 coys, 3.125 reitars in 3 regiments, ab. 3.200 soldiers in 3-4 regiments, 2.500 streltzy in 5 converged "prikazes".

First mobilization was done in 1675 to meet a Swedish embassy under Ernst Kreutz. The Novgorod Razryad under kz. Ivan Khovanskiy composed of Kopeyniy (Heinrich Zoge), 3 Reitars (Iakob Bils, Ulrich Schnitter, Stepan Uvarov), 3 Foot (Johann Treyden, Michael Westhof, Ivan Kegelkin) & 5 converged prikazes of Streltzy. Swedish embassy was postponed till next year, & in October the troops were sent back. Swedes noticed the gathering of the numerous Russian troops near the border & were seriously alarmed.  

Next year Novgorod Razryad was under kz. Ivan Troekurov. It composed of Kopeyniy (Heinrich Zoge), 3 Reitars (Iakob Bils, Ivan Minstreman, Peter Rydder), 4 Foot (Johann Treyden, Michael Westhof, Ivan Kegelkin & Irik Kemen) & 5 converged prikazes of Streltzy. In July-August Novgorod troops backed Russian diplomats during negotiations with Swedes on Meuzice (modern Meeksi) river. 

In 1677 Russian government first decided to send Novgorod Razryad under kz. Volodimir Dolgorukov on Ukraine. But in the end of June Tzar Fedor, influenced by Danish ambassador v. Gabel, changed his mind & ordered Novgorod troops be ready for an invasion to Swedish Baltic provinces. The most of Russian government were against a new war with Sweden until the war with Turkey continues, & they convicted the Tzar of opening the hostilities. Novgorod troops stayed on Swedish border till autumn. They were organized in the same way as in 1676 with the same colonels. 

So, in 1675-1677 Russia every year gathered a 10,500-strong Corps of local troops on Swedish border for a military demonstrations. 

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