воскресенье, 8 июня 2014 г.

Mecklenburg army in March 1719

Carl Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
In March of 1719 Mecklenburg was involved in a short military conflict with Hannover. I found a couple of interesting materials about it, & will place them here in the blog. I will start from a list of Mecklenburg troops.
Carl Leopold of Mecklenburg-Schwerin succeeded his brother Frederick William in 1713. He tried to establish absolutism in his dukedom, but it resulted in a conflict with local estates. Duke repressed them by force & even executed some of the leaders of resistance. His opponents asked Emperor to protect their rights & imperial legislation. In October of 1717 Reichshofrat (Court Council of the Holy Roman Empire) issued a verdict that the Duke would submit to all imperial decrees, return property confiscated from the nobles, re-established old rights of the estates & cancel new taxes. The right of execution was given to the Hannover & Brunswick-Wolthenbuttel.
Carl Leopold disagreed with the court decision hoping on Russian support & his own military forces. By the beginning of 1719 Mecklenburg army consisted of 3 Mecklenburg cavalry regiments (15 coys), 4 Mecklenburg foot regiments (6 batts), 2 Russian foot regiments on Mecklenburg service (4 batts) & 2 battalions of Land-Miliz.
The story with Russian regiments is very interesting. Duke Carl Leopold was married in 1716 to Catherine, a niece of the Peter the Great. Next year Russian Tzar agreed to provide 3,000 of Russian soldiers in Mecklenburg army to support his new relative in the internal conflict with local estates. They were Viatskiy & Yaroslavskiy Foot regiments. That time Russian foot regiments were of 8 fusilier coys only, their grenadier coys since 1708 were detached to form converged grenadier regiments. Grenadiers of Viatskiy & Yaroslavskiy regiments were in Campenhausen Grenadiers, which was in Baltic provinces in 1717. So, two grenadier companies were taken from Lacy Grenadiers which was in Pomerania that time. Finally Viatskiy & Yaroslavskiy regiments entered Mecklenburg service in April 1717 of one grenadier & 8 fusilier coys each (ab. 1,500 each). Russian officers were mostly from gentry. That time they kept lifelong military service to the Tzar. But when they entered Mecklenburg service, they realized that they could easily get retirement & officially return home in their estates. So, many Russian officers asked Karl Leopold to retire in 1717-19 & were replaced by German officers.  
Mecklenburg army, March 1719.
Troops & uniforms (from Hall R. Mecklenburg’s Military from 1650 to 1719. CD-room. 2003. P. 26-27).
Mecklenburg infantry uniforms, 1717-19
(From Hall R. Mecklenburg's Military from 1650 to 1719. 2003)
Generals: general-majors Curt Christoph von Schwerin & Detloff von Flohr, brigadiers Philipp Detloff von Kahlden & Waldow.
Cavalry:
·        Leibregiment zu Pferde under Brig. Waldow [1702/01], 5 companies, 400 men. Uniform: blue with blue facings.

·        Dragoons of Col. Johann William von Vietinghoff [1701/01], 5 companies, 400 men. Uniform: blue with paille (straw yellow).
·        Dragoons of Col. von Lilienstreng [1717/01], 5 companies, 400 men, in 1717 dismounted. Uniform: blue with white.
Infantry:
·        - I.R. General-Major Detloff von Flohr [1699/01], 10 companies, 1425 men. Uniform: blue, collar, cuffs, lining, waistcoat and breeches white, buttons tin, neck cloths black.
·        - I.R. General-Major Curt Christoph von Schwerin, 1719 Col. August Frederick von Kraft [1707/01], 10 companies 1425 men. Uniform: blue with red lining, cuffs and collar, blue waistcoat and breeches, buttons brass.
·        - I.R. Brigadier Philipp Detloff von Kahlden [1701/02] 5 companies, 720 men raised from the previous regiment of Bohlen on 7th January 1718. Uniform: blue with chamois (yellow) lining, cuffs and collar, blue waistcoat and breeches, buttons tin.
·       -  I.R. Lt. Col. Ferdinand von Zülow, 4 companies, 451 men, [1715/01]. Uniform: blue with white.
·        - I.R. Col. Ivan Valinsky [1717/03], 8 companies, 1342 men, taken from the Russian regiment of Viatski which entered the service of Mecklenburg in July 1717. Uniform: from 1718 coat, waistcoat and breeches blue, cuffs white, buttonholes blue. The men wore “kapuz” caps instead of hats (flat camp-caps with ear and neck flaps similar to the Swedish Karpuz).
·        - I.R. Col. Johann Gottfried von Tilly [1717/02], 8 companies, 1342 men and 2 grenadier companies 326 men, from the Russian regiment of Jaroslaw (Jaroslawski) and two companies of the grenadier regiment of General Lacy, an Irish officer in Russian service. Uniform from 1718: coat, waistcoat and breeches blue, cuffs and buttonholes white, kapuz caps.
Militia:
·        - Landmiliz battalion Schwerin under Col. Buggenhagen: 4 companies, 642 men. Uniform 1718: as for regiment Tilly.
·        - Landmiliz battalion Tilly under Lt. Col. Kohlhans: 4 companies, 642 men. Uniform 1718: as for regiment Valinsky.

Вооруженные силы Мекленбурга в марте 1719.

В новом "Военном сборнике" я наткнулся на материал Вадима Егорова о т.н. Мекленбургском корпусе на русской службе и кратком военном конфликте в марте 1719. К сожалению, в самой статье о ни о мекленбургской армии, ни о боевых действиях и бое при Вальсмухлене ничего толком не сказано. Вот я и решил поподробнее написать обо всем об этом. Начну с состава мекленбуржской армии.
Карл-Леопольд Мекленбург-Шверин вступил на трон в 1713 после смерти своего старшего брата Фридриха Вильгельма. Почти сразу же он вступил в затяжной конфликт с местной знатью и купцами города Ростока по поводу налогов и прав сословий. Карл-Леопольд хотел построить централизованное государство, а сословия всячески старались сохранить свои привелегии. После серии метаний в поисках сильного союзника в 1716 Карл-Леопольд женился на племяннице Петра I Екатерине Ивановне и взял курс на сближение с Россией. Петр в свою очередь благодаря Мекленбургу надеялся получить базу в Северной Германии и на Балтике. В 1717 он согласился предоставить своему новому родственику 2 русских полка, Вятский и Ярославский. Как и все пехотные полки они состояли из 8 фузилерных рот, их гренадерские роты в 1708 были отчислены на формирование сводных гренадерских полков. Собственно роты Вятского и Ярославского полка оказались в гренадерском полку Кампенгаузена, находившегося в 1717 году в Финляндии. Поэтому гренадерские роты взяли из находившегося в Померании гренадерского полка Ласси. Каким полкам они принадлежали - неизвестно, но точно не Вятскому и Ярославскому. 
Еще один занятный момент связан с массовыми отставками русских офицеров с мекленбургской службы. Большинство офицеров в то время были из дворян и несли обязательную пожизненную личную воинскую повинность под угрозой отобрания поместий и прочих наказаний. Увольнение со службы можно было получить только по состоянию здоровья, да и то могли принудительно определить на какую-нибудь гражданскую службу. Но в Мекленбурге русские офицеры вдруг выяснили, что местный герцог свободно отпускает со службы в отставку, причем его грамота признается в России. Многие этим воспользовались и спокойно вернулись домой в свои поместия. 
Между тем, в 1717 сословия пожаловались на Карла-Леопольда в имперский суд (он всего-то навсего отменил ряд городских привелегий, ввел новые налоги, казнил нескольких недовольных и конфисковал их владения...), и тот в октябре 1717 вынес вердикт в пользу восстановления status-quo. Право на "принуждение к миру силой" было выдано Брауншвейг-Каленбергу (Ганноверу) и Брауншвейг-Вольфенбюттелю как гарантам Нижне-Саксонского округа, к которому относился и Мекленбург. Вплоть до зимы 1719 в северной Германии и Польше находилась крупная русская группировка (ок. 30,000) и о военной операции никто не помышлял, но после ухода русских войск все изменилось, но об этом в другой раз. 
В итоге, мекленбуржская армия к марту 1719 состояла из 3 кавалерийских и 4 пехотных мекленбуржских полков, 2 русских полков и 2 батальонов ланд-милиции. Детали организации и униформы см. в ангоязычной части поста. 

10 комментариев:

  1. Hello Gromoboy!
    Speaking of nothing, I have a theory. Do you agree with me? That if Charles XII would have turned his attention towards Russia after battle of Düna. Defending the Baltics and campaigning in western Russia, conquering for example Pskov, Gdow and Novgodord. Instead of basically declearing war on Poland. Do you think Sweden would have made it out of the war and still be an Empire? Even due to the fact that Russia had made it out of the Time of Troubles?

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    Ответы
    1. What would be Charles reason to turn east? Poland with merchant towns & ports was much more interesting goal than agricaltural/rural areas of the north-west Russia. Saxon army was defeated but not destroyed. And August was ready to continue the fight. Capture of Gdov gives nothing, it was a small frontier stronghold. Psov & Novgorod both had good fortifications & were well-supplied with artillery. Their sieges would take time & resorces. They required siege artillery, supply, etc.
      So, Charles decision was very easy :)

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    2. True, there was sure much more things of worth to take in Poland, with these ports and resources. But that doesn't change the fact that Poland was not in war with Sweden. Poland tried to avoid conflict as much as possible. So wasn't it a bit stupid to add another enemy in the huge list of enemies (Saxony and Russia). Do you think that maybe after Düna, Charles held a defensive position in the south Baltics and pushed towards Russia to get Russia out of the conflict and save Poland for later?

      Also! fun to discuss with you guys, it's an honour!

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    3. Well, it was all about resources. Campaigning in Poland gave access to a wealth of resources which weren't available elsewhere. It was not a war with Poland-Lithuania, it was an attempt to force Augustus to abdicate. This was not a far-fteched idea at all since his election in 1697 had been very controversial.

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    4. I agree with Bengt. Charles didn't have any real reasons to advance east in 1701. Sweden had already controlled 40% of Russian foreign trade through Baltic sea. The rest 60% were through Arkhangelsk. Mineral-rich regions on Ural were too far to be an object of a campaign. N-W & central parts of Russia were agricultural areas. So, the only goal in Russia could be Arkhangelsk. But it was a local task which required limited resources. Charles sent a squadron of 7 ships to capture Arkhangelsk in summer of 1701.
      Poland is a different story. Sweden could obtain Courland & Danzig, plus establish control over the state by placing on Polish throne pro-Swedish candidate.

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    5. Charles policy towards Poland was not a break with the past, but rather the logical next step. Since at least 1660 the favorite idea of Swedish statesmen had been a Swedish-Polish alliance and this became even more logical after the end of the wars between Russia and Poland (Peace treaty in 1686). It was believed that the huge territorial losses suffered by Poland-Lithuania would make such an alliance even more appealing to Polish and Lithuanian leaders.

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    6. If I am not mistaken, in 1680s Sweden turned to an alliance with Russia versus Poland. Both countries exchanged embassies & launched negotiations on a border between them

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    7. There was a delegation sent to Russia in 1684 for the purpose of confirming the peace treaty of 1661, but I am not aware of any discussions about an alliance against Poland.

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    8. I didn't study the question of the Russian-Swedish relations in 1670-1680s in details. I just remember that there were several embassies (Oxenstierna in 1673-1674, etc.). I will check Forsten for details

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  2. Sweden had maybe 3 million inhabitants, Russia 4-5 times as many. No other European power, with the possible exception of France, had any political interest at all in preserving the Swedish empire. The astonishing thing is not the fact that the empire fwas lost but that it could be built and preserved for so long.

    The decision to march against Augustus was perfectly logical and entirely in line with Swedish foreign policy since at least 1660.

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