четверг, 10 января 2013 г.

Siege of Lachowitze, 20 March - 17 June 1660 (O.S.)

"Demonstratio aerea et Fortatij Lachowitz..."
Siege of Lachowitze, 20 March - 17 June 1660

Lithuanian garrison of Lachowitze was of 2 choragwies of Hungarian infantry, 3 choragwies of dragoon (totaled 450 men in 5 choragwies) & about 1,000-1,500 armed schlachta & their servants. In 1658 the fortress’s armament was of 30 cannons, incl. 1 25-pdr, 3 24-pdr, 6 18-pdr, 4 12-pdr, 1 11-pdr, 4 10-pdr, 1 6-pdr, 2 5-pdr, 3 3-pdr, & 5 of lesser calibers (link to Inventory of Lachowitze fortress in 1658). But a captive told that there were 47 cannons in Lachowitze during the siege.
Chowanski had about 7,500 with 25 cannons (2-6 pdr). His army consisted of 3 Reitar (D. v. Fizin, T. Boyt, M. Read – ab. 2,000-2,500 men), 4 Foot (Vasiliy Cunningham, Indrik Gulitc, Iwan Fliwerck, Eremei Rosform – about 1,600 men) & Dragoon (A. Forret – 500 men) regiments & 4 Novgorod & Pskov Streltzy (A. Pustoboyarov, G. Lynev, M. Volkov, S. Ohlebaev – about 1,200 men). The rest were Novgorod gentry & Polotck Schlachta.
Chowanski came to Lachowitze on 20 March 1660 (O.S.). On 26 March he made attempt of a night assault but was repulsed. Then Russians opened siege works & built entrenchments & batteries. Russians had cannons of small calibers & couldn’t make breeches in the walls. On 11 May Chowanski received reinforcements of 3 Prikazes of Moscow Streltzy (Vasili Pushechnikov, Timofei Poltev, Mikhail Oznobishin – ab. 1,500-2,000). On May 15 he made second assault but again was repulsed. On 26 May 1660 a corps under Semen Zmeev (2,400 men) came to Lachowitze, but the next day it was sent to Neswiz. On June 17 Chowanski lifted the siege & marched to Polonka.
The engraving “Demonstratio aera Arcis et Fortatij Lachowitze…” presents Russians position around Lachowitze & all major events during the siege (incl. 2 unsuccessful Russian assaults). The author is unknown. North is at the top of the map, south - at the down.
A – Fortress of Lachowitze.
B – River Wiedzma
C – Iwan Chowanski’s main camp
D – camp of voevoda Semen Sherbatov (Chowanski’s second-in-command)
E – camp of Cunnigham Foot.
F – Russian mounted patrols
G – Eleven Russian entrenchments (schantz) & batteries numbered I -XI
H – Russian siege works around Lachowitze
I – Iwan Chowanski with his suite during the assault on 26 March 1660 (O.S.)
K – Unsuccessful Russian attack on the south side of Lachowitze (second assault on 15 May 1660)
L – Dismounted Novgorod gentry in the second assault on 15 May 1660 (O.S.)
M – Stairs & fascines used by Russians at the assaults
N – Special siege tower made by Russians
O – Two mine galleries. Chowanski didn’t explode them because of a lack of powder. The train with the powder left Pskov to Lachowitze, but couldn’t have time to arrive before the Polonka battle. After Chowanski’s defeat the train returned to Pskov.
P – Sherbatov’s troops attacking Lachowitze’s walls
Q – Sherbatov’s troops marching to Lachowitze from the south
R – Russian assault on 26 March 1660 (O.S.). Early in the morning Russians mounted on the walls but were beaten-off with  
S – Polotck Schlachta participated in the assault on 26 March 1660 (O.S.)
T – Prikaz (regiment) of Moscow Streltzy in red dress. Three Prikazes of Moscow Streltzy (Vasili Pushechnikov, Timofei Poltev, Mikhail Oznobishin) joined Chowanski on 11 May of 1660 (O.S.) & participated in the second assault on 15 May 1660 (O.S.). Individual coat colors of these three regiments are unknown.
V Prikaz (regiment) of Moscow Streltzy in green dress. See T.
XPrikaz (regiment) of Moscow Streltzy in grey dress. See T.
Y – Virgin Mary
Z – Camp of Semen Zmeev’s Corps. It came to Lachowitze on 26 May 1660 (O.S.) & next day was sent to Neswiz.
Осада Ляхович войсками Ивана Хованского 20 марта - 17 июня 1660 г. (с.с.)
На сайте «История Военного Дела: исследования и источники» размещен материал И. Бабулина, посвященный осаде Ляхович Хованским и гравюре неизвестного автора, отобразившей основные события осады (ссылка). К сожалению, Бабулин использовал копию плохого качества,  у себя в блоге я вывесил гравюру в высоком разрешении (см в начале поста), на которой вы можете увидеть все детали. Пересказывать особо события данной осады я не буду, см. англоязычную часть поста и материал Бабулина. 
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5 комментариев:

  1. Vlad, what is source of estimate of garrison forces?
    Alongside cannons there was also 51 hook-guns (PL. hakownice) and 2 light 'śmigownice' cannons.
    Did Russian sources mentioned attemp of using magic by Chowański? ;)

    1. Michal, thank you for the add-on. Garrison estimation is based on captives reports. The same is for artillery (47 cannons).

      I know about the Chowanski's wizard -). He built the medieval siege tower, see later N on the map -). It was the only his miracle -).

  2. According to Polish source, wizard (miller from Horodyszcze) promised Chowański to curse all defenders' cannons and muskets, so they won't shoot :)
    I'm still wondering which units could be part of garrison's force. Stanisław Michał Judycki, who was commander of defence, wasn't 'rotmistrz' of any unit on Lithuanian army (although I double check it to be sure), 3 companies of dragoons could be Sapieha's. According to Lithuanian sources they were captured by Muscovites in battle at Prużany (Malcz) but maybe some of them survived and fled to Lachowicze?

    1. I don't know details about troops of Lachowitze garrison. Maybe Kossarzecki or Bobiatynski have any?

      I saw a topic about Chowanski's troops in 1659-1660 campaign on Ogniem i Mieczem forum. I have additional info about his troops in the raid in Lithuania, at Lachowitze & Polonka. I will put it in the blog in some days.

  3. I couldn't find any info in works written by those two.
    Any info about Chowański's troops will be great, as soon as You will post it here I will add link to topic on forum.